|(a) Definitions. The following words and terms, when used in this section, shall have the following meanings, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise. (1) Electric utility--Any entity owning or operating for compensation in this state equipment or facilities for producing, generating, transmitting, distributing, selling, or furnishing electricity whose rates for the sale of electric power are set by the Public Utilities Commission under the Public Utility Regulatory Act. The term does not include: (A) a qualifying small power producer or qualifying co-generator, as defined in the Federal Power Act, §3(17)(D) and §3(18)(C), as amended (16 United States Code §796(17)(D) and §796(18)(C)); or (B) any person not otherwise a public utility that owns or operates in this state equipment or facilities for producing, generating, transmitting, distributing, selling, or furnishing electric energy to an electric utility, if the equipment or facilities are used primarily for the production and generation of electric energy for the person's own consumption. (2) Fabrication--To make, build, create, produce, or assemble components of tangible personal property, or to make tangible personal property work in a new or different manner. (3) Manufacturing--Every operation commencing with the first stage of production of tangible personal property and ending with the completion of tangible personal property. The first production stage means the first act of production and it does not include acts in preparation for production. For example, a manufacturer gathering, arranging, or sorting raw material or inventory is preparing for production. When production is completed, maintaining the life of tangible personal property or preventing its deterioration is not a part of the manufacturing process. Tangible personal property is complete when it has the physical properties, including packaging, if any, that it has when transferred by the manufacturer to another. Also see §3.300 of this title (relating to Manufacturing; Custom Manufacturing; Fabricating; Processing). (4) Remodeling--To make tangible personal property belonging to another over again without causing a loss of its identity, or without causing the property to work in a new or different manner. (5) Processing--The physical application of the materials and labor necessary to modify or to change the characteristics of tangible personal property. The property being processed may belong either to the processor or the customer, the only tests being whether the property is processed and whether it will ultimately be sold. Direct use of natural gas or electricity in processing will be referred to as exempt use. Processing does not include remodeling or any action taken to prolong the life of tangible personal property or to prevent a deterioration of the tangible personal property being held for sale. The repair of tangible personal property belonging to another by restoring it to its original condition is not considered processing of that property. The mere packing, unpacking, or shelving of a product to be sold will not be considered to be processing of that product. (6) Residential use--Use in a family dwelling or in a multifamily apartment complex or housing complex or nursing home or in a building or portion of a building occupied as a home or residence when the use is by the owner of the dwelling, apartment, complex, home, or building or part of the building occupied. Residential use also includes use in a dwelling, apartment, complex, house, or building or part of a building occupied as a home or residence when the use is by a tenant who occupies the dwelling, apartment, complex, house, or building or part of a building under a contract for an express initial term of more than 29 consecutive days. Absent a contract, only the period exceeding 29 consecutive days will be considered residential use, when supported by valid documentation (i.e., receipts, canceled checks, etc.). For purposes of the exemption for residential use of natural gas and electricity, nursing homes qualify for exemption only for periods beginning after December 31, 1987. (b) Sales tax applicable. The furnishing of natural gas or electricity is a sale of tangible personal property. All the provisions in the Tax Code, Chapter 151, applying to the sale of tangible personal property, apply to the sale of natural gas or electricity. (c) Gas and electricity are exempted from the taxes imposed by this chapter when sold for: (1) residential use; (2) use in agriculture, including dairy or poultry operations and pumping for farm or ranch irrigation; (3) direct or indirect use or consumption, including electricity lost in the lines, by an electric utility engaged in the purchase of electricity for resale; (4) direct use in: (A) powering equipment that qualifies for exemption under Tax Code, §151.318, (including equipment that is permanently affixed to or incorporated into realty) to process tangible personal property for sale as tangible personal property, other than preparation of or the storage of food for immediate consumption; (B) lighting, cooling and heating in the manufacturing area during the actual manufacturing or processing of tangible personal property for sale as tangible personal property, other than preparation or storage of food for immediate consumption; (C) exploring for, producing, or transporting a material extracted from the earth; (D) electrical processes, such as electroplating, electrolysis, and cathodic protection; (E) the off-wing processing, overhaul, or repair of a jet turbine engine or its parts for a certificated or licensed carrier of persons or property; or (F) providing, under contract with or on behalf of the United States government or foreign governments, defense or national security-related electronics, classified intelligence data processing and handling systems, or defense-related platform modifications or upgrades; (G) the repair, maintenance, or restoration of rolling stock. (d) Use of gas or electricity in an exempt manner by an independent contractor engaged by the purchaser of the gas or electricity to perform one or more of the activities described in subsection (c)(4) of this section is considered use by the purchaser of the gas or electricity. (e) Predominant use. (1) Natural gas or electricity used during a regular monthly billing period for both exempt and taxable purposes under a single meter is totally exempt or taxable based upon the predominant use of the natural gas or electricity measured by that meter. A person who performs a processing, manufacturing, or other exempt function continually must establish predominant use on 12 consecutive months of use. (2) If, in the regular course of business, a person performs a processing, manufacturing, or other exempt function only part of the year and a nonprocessing, nonmanufacturing, or other taxable function for the remainder of the year, the predominant use may be established for that period of time the processing, manufacturing, or other exempt function occurs based on the predominant use during that period. (3) When determining the predominant use of natural gas or electricity, utilities used to operate machinery exempt under subsection (c)(4)(A) of this section and for lighting, cooling, and heating in the manufacturing area during actual manufacturing or processing of tangible personal property for sale are exempt. Gas and electricity used to operate lighting, cooling, and heating in manufacturing support areas are taxable. Manufacturing support areas include, but are not limited to, storage, engineering, office and accounting areas, research and development, and break, eating, and restroom facilities. Utilities used in an area open to the public for the purpose of marketing a product ready for sale are taxable. Utilities used to operate other nonproduction machinery or equipment are taxable. (f) Determining predominant use: utility studies. (1) Persons claiming a sales tax exemption because the predominant use of natural gas and electricity through a single meter is for processing, manufacturing, fabricating, or other nontaxable use must have performed a utility study to establish this predominant exempt use. The study must list all uses of the utility, both exempt and taxable, the times of usage, the energy used, and whether the use was taxable or exempt. Twelve consecutive months of utility usage must be a part of the study. The kilowatt rating or BTU rating, duty factor, where needed for cycling equipment, and electrical or natural gas computations must be certified by a registered engineer or a person with an engineering degree from an accredited engineering college. The owner of the business must certify that all items using natural gas or electricity (depending on which utility is covered by the study) are listed and that the hours of use for each item are correct. The certification of both the engineer and the owner must appear on the face of the study. If the owner of the business appoints an agent to act on the owner's behalf, the power of attorney must clearly state that the agent is attempting to qualify the principal for a sales tax exemption, and if a refund of sales tax is involved, the power of attorney must also state that a sales tax refund will be made by the state through the utility company. A person in business less than 12 consecutive months may still apply for a sales tax exemption if a registered engineer or a person with an engineering degree performs a study based upon projected uses which shows the predominant use as exempt. A person claiming an exemption based upon estimated use must be able to support the claimed exemption with a study of actual use after 12 consecutive months of operation if so requested by the comptroller. (2) The study must be completed and on file at the location of the person claiming the exemption at the time an exemption certificate is submitted to the utility company. Without the study, the claim for exemption will be presumed to be invalid. Persons obtaining a sales tax refund without a valid study will be assessed tax, penalty, and interest by the comptroller on the full amount of the refund, if the exemption is not proved. If the exemption certificate is fully completed with all information required by this section and bears an original seal of a registered engineer or is attached to a signed statement with an original signature from the owner of the business and a person with an engineering degree from an accredited engineering college, as required by paragraph (1) of this subsection, the utility company is not required to make any additional inquiry before honoring the exemption request. (3) The comptroller may request a copy of the study for review, either before or after the sales tax exemption is granted. Neither the comptroller by reviewing a study nor the utility company by accepting an exemption certificate is confirming the study's accuracy. Tax, penalty, and interest will be assessed on the business owner if the study is proven to be incomplete or inaccurate to the extent that the predominant use of the natural gas or electricity is taxable. (4) If a sales tax refund is being claimed retroactively, the study must take into account any changes in equipment or other items using utilities, any changes in business activities, and any changes in square footage being served by the meter. (5) This subsection does not apply to persons whose use of natural gas or electricity is for processing, manufacturing, or other exempt function if an industry-wide study for that particular industry reflects that the natural gas or electricity used would always qualify as exempt use. The industry-wide study must be submitted to the comptroller's office for review and approval. A subsequent study may be required, in the future, if factors relative to the original study change. (g) Exemption certificates. (1) Exempt users must issue exemption certificates to the utility company to claim a sales tax exemption or to obtain a refund of sales tax. The exemption certificate must be specific as to the reason for the claimed exemption. For example, if a person is claiming that the predominant use of the utility is for processing, the reason for the exemption must state, "A valid and complete study has been performed which shows that (insert the actual exempt percentage) of the natural gas or electricity is for processing tangible personal property for sale in the regular course of business." (2) The exemption is valid only as long as the person continues to use natural gas and electricity in a manner which is for predominantly exempt purposes. At the time the uses of the utilities change so that the predominant use is taxable, it is the person's responsibility to immediately notify the utility company in writing that the exemption is no longer valid. (3) Persons whose use of natural gas or electricity is solely in family dwellings will not be required to furnish exemption certificates. (4) A person whose use of natural gas and electricity is in multifamily apartment complexes, housing complexes, nursing homes, or other residential buildings may be required to issue an exemption certificate if one is necessary for the utility company to distinguish exempt residential use from taxable use. (h) Transportation of a material extracted from the earth. (1) Sales or use tax is not due on natural gas or electricity used to transport a material or its components extracted from the earth. Examples of materials or components extracted from the earth would be oil, natural gas, coal or coal slurry, crushed stone, sand and gravel, and water. (2) Sales or use tax is due on natural gas or electricity used to transport a product which was manufactured from a material extracted from the earth. Products which were manufactured from a material extracted from the earth include substances which do not exist in nature or are not components of crude oil, natural gas, coal, or other minerals extracted from the earth. (3) A material will not be considered to be manufactured when an additive is combined with a material for ancillary reasons, for example, odorant added to natural gas. (i) Pipeline safety fees. Sales or use tax is not due on any surcharge for pipeline safety fees added to the existing rates of each investor-owned and municipally owned natural gas distribution company and each natural gas master meter operator pursuant to Texas Utilities Code, §121.211.