|(a) Information on the source of the water delivered
must be included in the report.
(1) Each report must identify the source(s) of the
water delivered by the community water system by providing information
on the type of the water (such as surface water or groundwater) and
any commonly used name and location of the body(ies) of water.
(2) If a source water assessment has been completed,
the report must notify consumers of the availability of this information
and the means to obtain it. In the reports, systems should highlight
significant sources of contamination in the source water area if they
have readily available information.
(3) If a system has received a source water assessment
from the executive director, the report must include a brief summary
of the system's susceptibility to potential sources of contamination
using language provided by the executive director or written by a
water system official and approved by the executive director.
(b) The following explanations must be included in
the annual report.
(1) Each report must contain the following definitions.
(A) Maximum contaminant level goal (MCLG)--The level
of a contaminant in drinking water below which there is no known or
expected risk to health. MCLGs allow for a margin of safety.
(B) Maximum contaminant level (MCL)--The highest level
of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as
close to maximum contaminant level goals as feasible using the best
available treatment technology.
(C) Maximum residual disinfectant level goal (MRDLG)--The
level of a drinking water disinfectant below which there is no known
or expected risk to health. MRDLGs do not reflect the benefits of
the use of disinfectants to control microbial contaminants.
(D) Maximum residual disinfectant level (MRDL)--The
highest level of a disinfectant allowed in drinking water. There is
convincing evidence that addition of a disinfectant is necessary for
control of microbial contaminants.
(2) The following terms and their descriptions must
be included when they appear in the report:
(A) MFL--million fibers per liter (a measure of asbestos);
(B) mrem/year--millirems per year (a measure of radiation
absorbed by the body);
(C) NTU--nephelometric turbidity units (a measure of
(D) pCi/L--picocuries per liter (a measure of radioactivity);
(E) ppb--parts per billion, or micrograms per liter
(F) ppm--parts per million, or milligrams per liter
(G) ppt--parts per trillion, or nanograms per liter
(H) ppq--parts per quadrillion, or picograms per liter
(3) A report for a community water system operating
under a variance or an exemption of the Safe Drinking Water Act must
include a description of the variance or the exemption granted under §290.102(b)
of this title (relating to General Applicability).
(4) A report that contains data on a contaminant for
which the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has
set a treatment technique (TT) or an action level (AL) must include,
depending on the contents of the report, the following definitions.
(A) TT--A required process intended to reduce the level
of a contaminant in drinking water.
(B) AL--The concentration of a contaminant which, if
exceeded, triggers treatment or other requirements that a water system
(c) Information on detected contaminants.
(1) This subsection specifies the requirements for
information to be included in each report for detected contaminants
subject to mandatory monitoring, excluding Cryptosporidium.
Mandatory monitoring is required for:
(A) regulated contaminants subject to an MCL, MRDL,
AL, or TT; and
(B) unregulated contaminants for which monitoring is
required by 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §141.40, and
found in §290.275(4) of this title (relating to Appendices A
(2) The data relating to these detected contaminants
must be displayed in one table or in several adjacent tables. Any
additional monitoring results that a community water system chooses
to include in its reports must be displayed separately.
(3) The data must be derived from data collected to
comply with EPA and the commission monitoring and analytical requirements
during the previous calendar year, except when a system is allowed
to monitor for regulated contaminants less often than once per year.
In that case, the table(s) must include the date and results of the
most recent sampling, and the report must include a brief statement
indicating that the data presented in the report is from the most
recent testing done in accordance with the regulations. The report
does not need to include data that is older than five years.
(4) For detected regulated contaminants listed under §290.275
of this title, the table(s) must contain:
(A) the MCLs for those contaminants expressed as a
number equal to or greater than 1.0 (as provided under §290.275
of this title);
(B) the MCLGs for those contaminants expressed in the
same units as the MCLs (as provided for under §290.275 of this
(C) if there is no MCL for a detected contaminant,
the TT or specific AL applicable to that contaminant; and
(D) for contaminants subject to an MCL, except turbidity
and total coliforms, the highest contaminant level used to determine
compliance with National Primary Drinking
Water Regulations (NPDWR) and the range of detected levels.
(i) For contaminants subject to MCLs, except turbidity
and total coliforms, when sampling takes place once per year or less
often, the table(s) must contain the highest detected level at any
sampling point and the range of detected levels expressed in the same
units as the MCL.
(ii) When sampling takes place more than once per year
at each sampling point, the table(s) must contain the highest average
of any of the sampling points and the range of all sampling points
expressed in the same units as the MCL.
(iii) In accordance with date requirements included
in the table under §290.115(a) of this title (relating to Stage
2 Disinfection Byproducts (TTHM and HAA5)), entitled "Date to Start
Stage 2 Compliance," for the MCLs for total trihalomethanes (TTHM)
and haloacetic acids (HAA5), systems must include the highest locational
running annual average for TTHM and HAA5 and the range of individual
sample results for all monitoring locations expressed in the same
units as the MCL. If more than one location exceeds the TTHM or HAA5
MCL, the system must include the locational running annual averages
for all sampling points that exceed the MCL.
(iv) When compliance with any MCL is determined on
a system-wide basis by calculating a running annual average of all
samples at all sampling points, the table(s) must include the average
and range of detections expressed in the same units as the MCL.
(v) When the executive director allows the rounding
of results to determine compliance with the MCL, rounding should be
done after multiplying the results by the factor listed under §290.275
of this title.
(E) When turbidity is reported under §290.111
of this title (relating to Surface Water Treatment), the table(s)
must contain the highest single measurement and the lowest monthly
percentage of samples meeting the turbidity limits specified in that
section for the filtration technology being used. The report should
include an explanation of the reasons for measuring turbidity.
(F) When lead and copper are reported, the table(s)
must contain the 90th percentile value of the most recent round of
sampling and the number of sampling sites exceeding the AL.
(G) When total coliform is reported, the table(s) must
contain either the highest monthly number of positive samples for
systems collecting fewer than 40 samples per month or the highest
monthly percentage of positive samples for systems collecting at least
40 samples per month.
(H) When fecal coliform is reported, the table(s) must
contain the total number of positive samples.
(I) The table(s) must contain information on the likely
source(s) of detected contaminants based on the operator's knowledge.
Specific information regarding contaminants may be available in sanitary
surveys or source water assessments and should be used when available.
If the operator lacks specific information on the likely source, the
report must include one or more typical sources most applicable to
the system for any particular contaminant listed under §290.275
of this title.
(i) If a community water system distributes water to
its customers from multiple hydraulically independent distribution
systems that are fed by different raw water sources, the table(s)
must contain a separate column for each service area, and the report
must identify each separate distribution system. Systems may produce
separate reports tailored to include data for each service area.
(ii) The table(s) must clearly identify any data indicating
violations of MCLs, MRDLs, or TTs. The report must contain a clear
and readily understandable explanation of the violation. The explanation
must include the length of the violation, the potential adverse health
effects, and the actions taken by the system to address the violation.
To describe the potential health effects, the system must use the
relevant language contained under §290.275 of this title.
(5) For detected unregulated contaminants found under §290.275
of this title, for which monitoring is required (except Cryptosporidium), the table(s) must contain
the average and range of concentrations at which the contaminant was
detected. The report must include the following explanation: "Unregulated
contaminants are those for which EPA has not established drinking
water standards. The purpose of unregulated contaminant monitoring
is to assist EPA in determining the occurrence of unregulated contaminants
in drinking water and whether future regulation is warranted."
(d) Information on Cryptosporidium,
radon, and other contaminants.
(1) If the system has performed any monitoring for Cryptosporidium, the report must include
a summary of the results of any detections and an explanation of the
significance of the results.
(2) If the system has performed any monitoring for
radon, which indicates that radon may be present in the finished water,
the report must include the results of the monitoring and an explanation
of the significance of the results.
(3) If the system has performed additional monitoring,
which indicates the presence of other contaminants in the finished
water, the executive director strongly encourages systems to report
any results which may indicate a health concern. To determine if the
results may indicate a health concern, the executive director recommends
that systems find out if the EPA has proposed a standard in the NPDWR
or issued a health advisory for any particular contaminant. This information
may be obtained by calling the Safe Drinking Water Hotline at (800)
426-4791. The executive director considers detections that are above
a proposed MCL or health advisory level to indicate possible health
concerns. For such contaminants, the executive director recommends
that the report include the results of the monitoring and an explanation
of the significance of the results. The explanation should note the
existence of a health advisory or a proposed regulation.
(e) Compliance with NPDWR. In addition to the requirements
in subsection (c)(4)(I)(ii) of this section, the report must note
any violation that occurred during the year covered by the report
of a requirement listed in paragraphs (1) - (8) of this subsection.
(1) The report must include a clear and readily understandable
explanation of each violation of monitoring and reporting of compliance
data and explain any adverse health effects and steps the system has
taken to correct the violation.
(2) The report must include a clear and readily understandable
explanation of each violation of filtration and disinfection prescribed
by Subchapter F of this chapter (relating to Drinking Water Standards
Governing Drinking Water Quality and Reporting Requirements for Public
Water Systems) and explain any adverse health effects and steps the
system has taken to correct the violation. This applies both to systems
that have failed to install adequate filtration, disinfection equipment,
or processes, and to systems that have had a failure of such equipment
or processes, each of which constitutes a violation. In either case,
the report must include the following language as part of the explanation
of potential adverse health effects: "Inadequately treated water may
contain disease-causing organisms. These organisms include bacteria,
viruses, and parasites that can cause symptoms such as nausea, cramps,
diarrhea, and associated headaches."